The sixth chapter of the book published here in parts, entitled „Foundations of Personalist Economics”, begins a proper analysis of the mechanism of the economic system from the point of view of the human person as the only real subject of the economy. Basing on previous findings concerning the mechanism of decision-making, the sources of property and the nature of value, and making certain assumptions that idealize selected human characteristics, we analyze the development of a model of society starting from the so-called state of nature. In this way it is possible to see one common goal of all human behavior and the role that goods play in realizing this goal. It is also possible to clearly define the notion of „need” and to indicate the different types of needs and to distinguish them from states that are not needs, as well as to formulate the basic principles of exchange as one of the two ways of acquiring goods. The assumptions made at the beginning of this chapter will be repealed in turn in the following chapters.